Rube Goldberg

Original Article in The JNS:

This Thanksgiving season, there are several opportunities to experience the legendary Rube Goldberg. The Rube Goldberg Cartoon Gallery features the cartoon “simple way to carve a turkey,” as well as many other classic whimsical inventions “for fun, laughs and inspiration!” Flip through the Merriam-Webster dictionary and discover an entry which defines “Rube Goldberg” as “accomplishing by complex means what seemingly could be done simply.”

So how do you “simply” carve a Thanksgiving turkey, Rube-Goldberg style?

“Put a bowl of chicken salad on the window sill, which causes the on looking rooster to become overcome by grief, which leads to his tears saturating a sponge, pulling a string, releasing a trap door, causing sand to run down a trough, into a pail. The weight of the pail raises a see-saw, which makes the cord life the cover of an ice cream freezer. The penguin standing there will feel a chill, think he is at the North Pole, start to flap his wings for joy, fan a propeller, and turn a cog that causes the turkey to slide back and forth over a cabbage-cutter until it is sliced!” In Goldberg’s own words, his zany contraptions became “a symbol of man’s capacity for exerting maximum effort to achieve minimal results.”

To see, experience and even touch life-size Rube Goldberg contraptions in person, head to Philadelphia this Thanksgiving, Chanukah or winter break for “The Art of Rube Goldberg”—the first retrospective exhibit in 40 years—on display at the National Museum of American Jewish History from Oct. 12 to Jan. 21.

Visitors will learn that Goldberg was a man of many talents and interests, which over the course of his 72-year career extended beyond whimsical invention cartoons to include sports writing; answers to stupid questions in his “Foolish Questions” series (first published in the New York Evening Mail in 1908); political cartooning; his satirical takes on fashion, sports, politics, gender roles and other aspects of modern life; and his work as an early ad man.

Museum guests will also see why Goldberg has been an inspiration for generations of aspiring scientists, engineers and inventors of all ages. In many ways, he could be considered the granddaddy of STEAM—the popular, school-based approach to learning using Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as entry points for student questioning, critical thinking and discussion.

Adopting a comic style (and some funny friends)

Goldberg was born Rueben Garret Lucius Goldberg in San Francisco on July 4, 1883, the second of four children to German-Jewish immigrant parents Max Goldberg and Hannah Cohen. Though he wanted to be an illustrator from an early age, his parents had other ideas. Rube’s father was a police and fire commissioner who was also involved in real estate, banking and politics. He pushed Goldberg to attend the University of California-Berkeley, where he studied mining and engineering, and wrote for the college humor paper.

He did not push as hard a few years earlier when it came to celebrating bar mitzvah. According to Dr. Josh Perelman, chief curator and director of exhibitions and interpretation, Rube’s parents were traditional Jews, but “Rube diverged with his father around identity. He refused to become bar mitzvah. He is not what we would call a practicing Jew.” Yet, Perelman points out that “there is a sense of Jewishness in his work.”

Perelman, who spoke with JNS at the Rube Goldberg exhibit, describes Goldberg as “a very observational cartoonist—he was a member of a minority community, he was on the outside looking in. He walked the line between feeling he was a minority and feeling he was an integrated member of society. And there was a social-awareness theme with political overtones throughout.”

Goldberg’s first and last job directly related to his undergraduate engineering training was with the San Francisco sewer company. Needless to say, he wasn’t happy there and was willing to take a big pay cut to become a sports cartoonist for the San Francisco Chronicle. The exhibition traces Goldberg’s extensive and eclectic career, including his innovative early work with original drawings that reveal the beginnings of his comic style, then follows his steady rise to fame as a nationally syndicated presence in the 1920s and 1930s. Highlights include one of his earliest drawings, “The Old Violinist” from 1895, an original concept drawing of Boob McNutt and Bertha from the 1920s, and original artwork for such comic-strip series’ as Foolish Questions, Mike and Ike-They Look Alike and Boob McNutt (from the 1910s and 20s).

Goldberg was both influenced by and a participant in early film. He wrote the script for the 1930 Three Stooges movie, “Soup to Nuts,” designed many of the set pieces (chairs, tables) and even made a cameo appearance. His friends included the Three Stooges, Charlie Chaplin and Groucho Marks. His classic self-operating napkin sequence appears in Charlie Chaplin’s “Modern Times” (1936). The exhibit also features a rare interview of Goldberg by legendary broadcaster Edward R. Murrow.

‘Reintroduce him to the world’

Also on display are examples of children’s toys, hobby kits and board games inspired by Goldberg’s invention drawings. Goldberg had two U.S. patents, given in 1936, for the comic strip “LalaPalooza.” As the exhibit notes, his cartoons “shifted focus with political discord mounting in Europe.” Further, “he never shied away from hot-button social and political issues, and temperance and prohibition were recurring themes.”

Goldberg also offered early commentary on the Israel-Arab situation. In 1947, he sketched a black-and-white cartoon of two people walking in the desert on what seems to be parallel paths. One is identified as “Jews” and the other “Arabs.” The caption reads: “When will they find a meeting point?” Goldberg received the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1948. Later, he drew an editorial cartoon right after World War II that focused on the threat of nuclear war.

The exhibition ends with a survey of Goldberg’s work during his final decades and with a look at his lasting influence on popular culture. For example, Goldberg appears in advertisements for various cigarette, motor oil, gin, car and tire companies. His granddaughter, Jennifer George, reports, “The more I got to know him through his work, the more I understood how important it was not just to keep his legacy going, but to reintroduce him to the world.”

She and the exhibit have done a very commendable job. While Goldberg died in 1970, the official Rube Goldberg website notes that “Rube Goldberg lives on in pop culture, and is referenced daily in both print and digital media. His name is searchable, hash-taggable, and at best, viral.”

Fans and aspiring inventors can celebrate Rube Goldberg’s legacy by creating Rube Goldberg Machines™ in an annual Rube Goldberg Machine Contest.

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Original Article in The Jerusalem Post:

PHILADELPHIA – If you want to get to the National Museum of American Jewish History in Philadelphia, go to Independence Hall to see the Liberty Bell, then grab a kosher falafel and tehina shake at Goldie’s, climb the “Rocky Steps,” see the Rocky statue and take a selfie at the Philadelphia Museum of Art Museum, take in a Philadelphia Flyers hockey game at the Wells Fargo Center, then take two SEPTA trains to the Fifth Street and Independence Mall Station. Pass through museum security, take the elevator to the fifth floor and you will be treated to “The Art of Rube Goldberg,” the first retrospective exhibit in 40 years, celebrating the groundbreaking art of Rube Goldberg. Sound complicated? Rube Goldberg would be proud!

Goldberg, who lived from 1883 to 1970, built his distinguished career on making the simple complicated. By age 48, as the exhibit points out, his name was part of the lexicon and was added to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary. Rube Goldberg, now an adjective, is defined as “accomplishing by overly complex and humorous means what seemingly could be done simply.” The exhibition opened on October 12 and runs through January 21, 2019. It begins with one such contraption that visitors can manipulate and proceeds to show – through cartoon strips, puzzles, board games and video clips – the many sides of Goldberg, including sports writer, political cartoonist, ad man and Pulitzer Prize winner.

Docent Paul Woolf repeatedly laughed out loud as he read and re-read cartoons mounted on walls throughout the gallery. “His imagination is just incredible. He takes simple things and makes them so complex – or stupid, like his “Foolish Questions” cartoons. Goldberg’s first Foolish Questions cartoon was published in New York’s Evening Mail in 1908 and became an “instant hit.” Woolf humbly notes, “There are some aspects of his life people don’t know about – I didn’t! People know about his inventions but not his other works. He had 50,000 things in print in his lifetime compared to Charles Schultz (of “Peanuts” fame) who had 18,000. And he popularized the term ‘Baloney!’”

Goldberg, the third child born in San Francisco, California, to traditional German- Jewish immigrant parents Max Goldberg and Hannah Cohen, wanted to be an illustrator from an early age. His father, described as “flamboyant, a former cowboy and a political operator,” had other ideas. Goldberg studied mining and engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, where he wrote for the college humor paper. He took his first job with a San Francisco sewer company – and took a big pay cut when he left to become a sports cartoonist for the San Francisco Chronicle.

GOLDBERG NEVER swayed from his true love, continuing to write and sketch works that included “Boob McNutt,” “Foolish Questions” and “Mike and Ike: They Look Alike.” His distinguished career included to a brief stint in Hollywood with friends the Three Stooges, Charlie Chaplin and Groucho Marx. He wrote the script for the Three Stooges movie, Soup to Nuts, designed many of the set pieces (chairs, tables) and even made a cameo appearance. Goldberg had two US patents in 1936 for the comic strip, “Lala Palooza.” As the exhibit notes, his cartoons “shifted focus with political discord mounting in Europe.” In 1947, Goldberg sketched a black and white cartoon of two people walking in the desert on what seem to be parallel paths. One is identified as “Jews” and the other “Arabs.” The caption reads, “When will they find a meeting point?” Goldberg received the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1948. He drew an editorial cartoon right after World War Two that focused on the threat of nuclear war in which the words “Atomic Bomb,” “World Control” and “World Destruction” appear in capital letters. The exhibit explanation says, “[Goldberg] never shied away from hot-button social and political issues, and temperance and prohibition were recurring themes.”

At the end of the exhibit, Goldberg appears in an advertisement for a gin company and for Lucky Strike cigarettes (1940s). It notes that he was an early ad man, penning content for Pennzoil Motor Oil, Goodrich Tires and Volkswagen. In an interview with The Jerusalem Post, Dr. Josh Perelman, chief curator and director of exhibitions and interpretation, playfully noted that his granddaughter Jennifer George said, “He never smoked a single cigarette in his life.” Goldberg was a lifelong cigar smoker. Goldberg’s work has universal appeal and has been credited with contributing to the rise of interest in helping students develop STEM skills (science, technology, engineering and math) by problem- solving. Yet, as Perelman notes, there is “a sense of Jewishness” in Goldberg’s work.

“He was a very observational cartoonist. As a member of a minority community, he was on the outside looking in. He walked the line between feeling he was a minority and feeling he was an integrated member of society. And there was a social awareness theme with political overtones throughout. This comes out of his formative years.” Perelman also noted there was something particularly Jewish in the “slapstick nature of his cartooning.”

Perelman sees great potential in exposing viewers to the full world of Goldberg. “For people of all ages, he was so well-known as an adjective. We have an opportunity to help him gain his due as a noun. A whole generation knows what a Rube Goldberg machine is, but they don’t necessarily know who Rube Goldberg was as a person.”

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