In considering great heroes, dates, places and milestones in the history of disabilities inclusion, one is more likely to think of Tom Harkin, ADA, and 1990 rather than think of Herb and Barbara Greenberg and Donny Adelman (z”l), 1970 and Camp Ramah in Glen Spey, New York. Yet, without the pioneers Greenberg and Adelman, there may have been no Jewish inclusive camping. The Ramah Camping Movement’s network of Tikvah (“Hope”) programs, which currently serves nearly 400 participants each summer in ten overnight camps, five day camps and Israel programs, is currently celebrating 50 years from that first memorable summer in 1970.
In the late 1960’s, the Greenbergs, two school teachers from Long Island, NY, proposed what seemed back then like a radical idea—including campers with disabilities in a typical Jewish overnight camp. Not surprisingly, they were met with institutional opposition from all sides: People worried about the financial impact; how the level of Hebrew in the camps would suffer; and that the “normal” campers would leave. Even the camp doctors felt ill-equipped to care for these campers.
One visionary director, Donny Adelman, saw the potential benefit not only for the campers with disabilities and their families, but for the entire camp community. Adelman felt that including campers with disabilities was consistent with the mission of Ramah –and Judaism.
That first summer, the Greenbergs invited eight campers with varied disabilities to participate in Tikvah. They spent a great deal of time problem solving and supporting the specialists working with the Tikvah campers. The experiment was so successful that other Ramah camps soon replicated the program. When Ramah Glen Spey relocated to New England, the Tikvah program went with it. In 1973, Tikvah was started at Ramah Wisconsin. Ojai, California joined in 1985 and Canada in 1993. Fast forward to 2018—Tikvah and a wide range of services and supports for children and young adults and families (from a wide range of Jewish backgrounds) currently exist in all Ramah camps.
In 2018, 387 young Jews participated in in Tikvah programs across North America, supported in typical bunks, as part of a Tikvah division, or as participants in vocational training programs. In addition, 227 people (64 children with disabilities from 59 families) participated in family camps at our various Ramah camps. Teenagers with disabilities are regularly supported each summer on Ramah Israel Seminar, and more than ten groups of Tikvah participants have visited Israel over the years on Ramah Israel Tikvah trips. When Rabbi Sarah Shulman became founding director of Camp Ramah in Northern California in 2016, she insisted they not open their doors without a Tikvah program!
Ramah continues to grow, evolve, innovate and lead the field. Graduates of our vocational training programs are salaried workers in some of our camps. Staff members go on to present at conferences and lead the field. Reshet Ramah, our alumni network, strives to include graduates in year-round activities. Other year-round programs include “Shabbos Is Calling” and “Shavua Tov,” weekly video chats where participants at various Ramah Tikvah programs discuss their week, learn about the portion of the week and just say “Shabbat Shalom.”
Perhaps Ramah and Tikvah’s biggest accomplishment to date has been pioneering the field of disabilities camping. It is no longer acceptable to tell a family of a child with a disability, “I wish I could help, but…” There are now dozens of camps across movements and across the country that support campers with a wide range of intellectual, developmental and mental health conditions. The Greenbergs and Donny Adelman showed what is possible, even in the face of institutional adversity. Chazak, chazak v’nitchazek—May we be strong, continue their mission, and strengthen one another as we grow in our efforts to support the growth of our people with disabilities through the world of Jewish camping.
Parents of young adults with disabilities–from Maine to California—use the term “falling off the cliff” to describe the situation their children often face upon graduation from high school. They speak about the lack of adequate training programs and job opportunities for their children. Without job training and employment, they potentially face fifty or more years of unemployment or underemployment, inadequate opportunities to form friendships and a sadly sedentary life of movies, video games and unhealthy eating.
While the unemployment rate in the population of people with disabilities is worrisome, there is reason for hope. My recent travels across the country, generously supported by the Covenant Foundation, offer many examples of creative job training programs and work opportunities for people with disabilities—many started by their parents.
First the bad news: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2017, 18.7 percent of persons with a disability were employed. In contrast, the employment-population ratio for those without a disability was 65.7 percent. The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 9.2 percent in 2017, more than twice that of those with no disability (4.2 percent). (Unemployed persons are those who did not have a job, were available for work, and were actively looking for a job in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.).
The unemployment rate has improved slightly in 2018 across all populations. According to the United States Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) December 2018 Disability statistics, the unemployment rate for people with disabilities was 7.9% compared to 3.5% for people without disabilities. Labor force participation for people ages 16 and over with disabilities was 20.7% compared to 68.4% for people without disabilities. Employed persons with a disability were more likely to be self-employed than those with no disability.
Many parents of young adults with disabilities are taking action and creating job training programs and creating work opportunities. They are starting dog biscuit, sock and t-shirt companies. They are running boutique laundry services, running bakeries and cafes, making and selling granola—to Whole Foods! They are running car washes, messenger services, book stores, and even hotels in Germany and India! Some are even reading mammograms and doing sound engineering. These businesses serve anywhere from one to dozens of workers.
I visited 13 such businesses between June and December 2018 and learned of many more from these business owners, parents, colleagues and the Facebook group, Autism Entrepreneurship. Business owners were happy to share lessons learned and challenges faced, including:
-Take the lead from your child’s interests [i.e. dolls, in the case Yes She Can (job skills program) and GirlAgain (a resale boutique for American Girl dolls], but also have a careful business plan and start a business likely to be successful;
-Don’t start a business when you are feeling desperate; start a business after careful research (consult with professionals who know this type of business);
-Strive to keep costs down (investigate cheapest ways to ship, purchase ingredients, package the product, etc.);
-Be aware of such unanticipated costs as legal fees, websites (which are expensive), trash removal, local green taxes, etc.;
-Decide if plan is to be for profit, not for profit or both;
-Remember that running a business takes a lot of time and money;
-Transportation is an issue for many workers. Those who don’t drive are dependent on an often unreliable public transportation system or on Access-A-Ride (which may come very early or late);
-Business owners in this space have a lot to offer each other. Some would like to be part of a trade group. Some would like to share advice and consider selling products of other disability run businesses;
There are so many wonderful examples of businesses providing vocational training and work opportunities for people with disabilities. Several are highlighted here:
Purely Patrick in Stowe, VT is a one-person business run by Patrick Lewis, 27, (with the help of his mother and two job coaches) from his room in his parent’s Brass Lantern Inn. Patrick is a young man with disabilities and many abilities who assembles and sells various products including kits for soups, cookies and dog biscuits through the use of assistive technology. He uses a pouring device that is activated by a switch that he controls. The company sells products online, at various local fairs and at the inn.
John’s Crazy Socks in Melville, NY was established two years ago when John, a young man with Down Syndrome, was nearing graduation from high school. He and his dad were brainstorming business ideas and John suggested a sock company! Father reports, “We are evangelists on what people with different abilities can do! The best we can do is make our business a success. Johns Crazy Socks is a social enterprise/business with 18 people of differing abilities making up the 35 person work force. The work place is unified with all working side by side.”
Spectrum Design in Port Washington, NY is two separate 501c3 programs started by two mothers of children with autism. Nicholas Center is the support agency and Spectrum Designs is the business component. Spectrum Designs currently consists of three enterprises—Spectrum Designs, which produces customized apparel (3000-8000 shirts/day); Spectrum Bakes (bakery) and Suds, a boutique laundry service. The apparel design employs 20+ people with autism and there are currently 60 people involved with Spectrum Designs and Nicholas Center—some are salaried workers and some are trainees. They also have a work out room, go on nature walks and teach health and nutrition.
Rising Tide Car Wash in both Parkland and Margate, FL employs 72 people with disabilities out of a total of 92 workers. The company was started by the brother of a person with autism, with the expert guidance of their father, a life-long entrepreneur. Through Rising Tide U, an online course which provides road maps for entrepreneurs who wish to start businesses that empower individuals with autism through gainful employment, they are helping others get started.
Beyond the dozens of businesses on my growing list which provide creative job opportunities to people with disabilities, foundations like the Poses Family Foundation Workplace Initiative are working with industry to improve training and hiring of people with disabilities.
I keep coming across a very hopeful term in my travels—”Autism Advantage.” Employers are slowly learning that hiring people with autism and other disabilities has a real business advantage. This is not “chesed” or charity. This is good business! People with autism, for example, are often attentive to detail, follow rules and are loyal workers. People with disabilities often don’t mind repetitive tasks, and they are likely to stay at a job without looking to move up or out. The smaller business owners and large corporations continue to appreciate the unique skills and qualities of people with disabilities, the sooner the unemployment rate will go down, and the epidemic of falling off the cliff will come to an end once and for all!